About 600 plant species are collected in the 5000 square metres dedicated to the botanical garden. The area was chosen because in this small patch of land are naturally represented all the major geomorphological conformations of the Karst landscape, which are associated with their respective plant formations. The natural conformation of the garden has allowed the structuring of the botanical display to vary according to ecological characteristics, thereby enabling a more intuitive understanding of the link between vegetation, climate and geology. Carsiana seeks to be a "synthesis of the karst landscape" delivering the visitor a comprehensive overview of the main environmental aspects of the area.
In 1964 a group of academics and enthusiasts of the Karst noted that the phenomena of abandonment of farming and rapid transformation of habitats were leading to a progressive encroachment of the Karst and a consequent loss of biodiversity. They therefore decided to fence off a piece of karst terrainthat summarized its fundamental characteristics. Thus was born the idea of Gianfranco Gioitti, Stanislao Budin and Livio Poldini, together with the contribution of Fabrizio Martini and Eliseo Osualdini to create the Carsiana Botanical Garden. Within it the most significant aspects of the Karst landscape were maintained and reinforced including the dry grassland, woodland, scrub and undergrowth, the sinkhole, the vegetation of rocky areas and scree. The garden encloses in just a little space what in nature is spread across a wide area.
1. The Karst explodes into flower between March and August, with all its colours: the yellow of the Potentilla tommasiniana illyrica and Centaurea rupestris, the purple Centaurea crested and Iris illyrica, the intense blue of Gentiana tergestina. Other species found in the dry grassland include Jurinea mollis, Onosma javorkae and Pulsatilla montana.
2. The floral rarities of Carsiana are linked to the superficial karst formations such as the scree, which force the plants to have limited leaf-cover but deep roots. Among the most interesting are Festuca spectabilis subsp. carniolica, Drypis spinosa subsp. jacquiniana and Biscutella laevigata subsp. hispidissima.
3. The natural karst pothole with a large circular entrance wide 7m x 7m from which one can see the vertical walls that plunge down to a shelf located 23 metres down. The cavity continues on down, overall, twisting and turning to reach a total depth of nearly 40 metres ..